4/14/2007

Kiken Castle (kikenjoo) Taishaku Ten

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. Shōmen Kongō 青面金剛 Shomen Kongo .
Koshin Cult 庚申信仰, see below
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Kiken Castle (kikenjoo)and 帝釈天 Taishaku Ten

***** Location: Buddhist Paradise
***** Season: Late Spring
***** Category: Heaven


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Explanation

Kiken no Miya, 喜見宮, Kiken Joo, Zenken Joo 善見城
Kikenjo, Zenkenjo, Zengenjoo, Zengenjo
The living quaters of the deity Taishaku-Ten 帝釈天 in the Buddhist paradise Tooriten 忉利天 Toriten. It is decorated with a lot of cloisonnee or situated in a sea of cloisonnee and has a great garden for the gods to enjoy.

This is another expression for a mirage, shinkiroo 蜃気楼.

More kigo with heat shimmers
"town in the sea, kaishi 海市(かいし)
"mountain town" sanshi 山市(さんし)
mirage, kaiyaura かいやぐ, shinroo 蜃楼(しんろう)
"flimmering town" shinshi 蜃市(しんし)
"fox shelf" きつねだな

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Huge frame of the Taishaku Temple Hall
Shibamata, Tokyo 柴又は帝釈天


© Photo http://www.taishakuten.or.jp/

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Taishakuten, Taishaku-Ten 帝釈天
Indra, Sakra Deva, Shakra Devanam Indra


Protector deity of the Buddhist Law




He lives in a palace called Correct Views (Jap : Zenkenjo, Zengenjo 善見城) or
Joyful to See 善見城 (Kikenjo) in the Trayastrimsha Heaven on the peak of Mt. Sumeru.

He is also known as a god of wealth in Japan.
Taishakuten is often depicted riding an elephant.

MORE
Taishakuten (Sanskrit: Shakra Devanam Indra)


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kigo for the New Year

hatsu Taishaku 初帝釈(はつたいしゃく)
first Taishaku ceremony
Taishaku Ten mairi 帝釈天詣(たいしゃくてんまいり)visiting a temple of Taishaku
..... Taishaku mairi 帝釈詣(たいしゃくまいり)

CLICK for more photos


hatsu Kooshin 初庚申( はつこうしん) first Koshin ceremony
Kooshin machi 庚申待(こうしんまち) "waiting for Koshin" waiting for the sun
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


kooshin, 庚申, ka no e saru,
Day of the Monkey and the element metal,
is nr. 57 of the 60 signs of the Chinese zodiac.

The Asian Lunar Calendar. Reference


Shrine Sarutahiko Jinja in Ise, Mie prefecture
猿田彦神社 is famous for its First Koshin Festival.
初庚申大祭
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


Faith in the deity Taishakuten initially centralized in Edo, later it expanded, when it began to be associated with the practice of Koshin-machi, waiting for Koshin , fueling popularity in the festival "Yoi-goshin 宵庚申" (Eve of the Koshin Day) during the late Edo period. There are also some Taoist elements mixed in this celebration.


Kooshindoo 庚申堂(こうしんどう)Koshin Hall in Nara


Temple 帝釈寺 Taishaku-Ji in Osaka


The Temple for Taishakuten in Shibamata 柴又帝釈天, Tokyo became famous through the movie series of Tora-San, Otoko wa tsurai yo.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

For details about Kooshin 庚申 Koshin, see below.
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kigo for late summer

sanpuku 三伏 (さんぷく) three hottest ka-no-e "metal" days of summer

the third day of Ka no e 庚(かのえ)の日 after the summer solstice is
shofuku 初伏(しょふく) first ka-no-e day

the fourth day of Ka no e 庚(かのえ)の日 after the summer solstice is
chuufuku 中伏(ちゅうふく) middle ka-no-e day

the last day of Ka no e 庚(かのえ)の日 after the summer solstice is
mappuku 末伏(まっぷく) last ka-no-e day


ka-no-e, the elder brother of metal. Metal will be melted by heat
(火剋金), so these three days are unlucky.
The acutal days may differ according to ancient lore, usually the third and fourth ka-no-e day after the summer solstice and the first of autumn are counted.

On these days, you should not sow seeds or plant, have no treatment, do not go on a trip and have no sex.

These three days are somewhere during the end of july, beginning of august, in the hottest time of the year. The Characters 三伏の猛暑 are used when writing a letter of sympathy to someone on these days.


. shinkiku seisu 神麯製す (しんきくせいす)
making shinki rice cakes

kigo for mid-summer
This is a Chinese custom, making them on the 5th day of the 5th month or the 6th day of the 6th month or the "sanpuku days".

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kigo for early winter

osame no kooshin 納の庚申 (おさめのこうしん)
last Koshin ceremony - 納庚申

..... hate no kooshin 果の庚申(はてのこうしん)
..... tome no kooshin 、止庚申(とめこうしん)



Ceremony on the day of Koshin sama (ka no e saru).
It comes in the middle of November, 60 days after the one before.
Very seldom this day falls in December.

Rituals are held in all the Koshin halls.
The wayside gods (doososhin) are also celebrated on this day.
On the night before, people get together and celebrate with ricewine. The streets in front of the Taishaku temples are especially lively on this night before.


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quote
Tsukimachi, Himachi  月待ち ・ 日待ち
"Waiting for the Moon," and "Waiting for the Sun." 

"Waiting for the moon" is an occasion when people gather on particular evenings of a lunar cycle (e.g. the seventeenth, nineteenth, twenty second, and twenty third) to eat, drink, and pay homage to the moon as they wait for it to appear. The gatherings are often organized by religious organizations known as kō, whose members assemble at their established meeting place (tōya, usually the organizer's home), hang a scroll of the moon god, Tsukuyomi no Mikoto, in the tokonoma alcove, light (a) votive candle(s), and wait for the moon to appear.

The idea of installing Tsukuyomi no Mikoto as an object of worship (saijin) is a product of the modern era and reflects the influence of Edo Period Shintō scholars; originally, the moon itself was worshipped as the avatar of the kami (shintai). The designation for moon-waiting groups accords with the day of the cycle on which they assemble; examples include: the jūshichiya-kō (Confraternity of the seventeenth night), jūkuya-kō (Confraternity of the nineteenth night), the nijūniya-kō (Confraternity of the twenty second night), and the nijūsan'ya-kō (Confraternity of the twenty third night). The last of these is the most widespread and is also called san'ya-machi (third night waiting), san'ya-sama (honored third night), and sanya-kuyō (third-night memorial service). A tower erected for the twenty-third night gathering can often be found in a remote corner of many villages and hamlets. Moon-waiting confraternities that meet every month are rare; they are usually held only in the months of January, May, September, and November.

Sun-waiting is an occasion when the faithful gather on special days, as determined by the Chinese zodiac, such as
庚申 Ka-no-e-saru (also read kōshin;
a special day in the sexagenary cycle on which the day of the monkey and the element metal fall together),
Ki-no-e-ne (a special day in the sexagenary, on which the day of the rat and the element wood fall together), and Mi (day of the snake).
They hold an all-night vigil and then worship the dawn. Because at both moon-waiting and sun-waiting events participants are required to make ablutions, to take baths, and to don clean clothes, scholars believe that such events were originally rituals of abstinence and spiritual purification (shōjin-kessai).
source : Iwai Hiroshi . Kokugakuin University


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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way


. Monkey amulets from Shibamata Taishaku Ten .

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- Legends about Taishaku Ten -

byakudan 白檀 statue from sandalwood
from Kyoto 南丹市 Nantan town
Suddenly there was a ray of golden light and in no time there grew a sandalwood tree. An old man appeared and told 和気清麻呂 Wake no Kiyomaro : "Build a temple right here!".
When the old man had disappeared, there was a statue of Taishaku Ten made from Sandalwood instead.

. byakudan 白檀 sandalwood (chandan) .

. ibokami 疣神 Deity taking away warts .


Okayama, 川上 Kawakami
In this region it is customary to visit the Taishaku temple at least once in your life, otherwise there would not be a smooth passing to the Buddhist paradise.


. Onibashi 鬼橋 the Demon Bridge .

- source : Yokai Database -


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ita honzon 板本尊
main deity carved on a wooden plank (ita)

This is sometimes found in temples of the Nichiren sect.

It refers to the Daimoku of Nichiren, sometimes to other deities.
One of the most famous is Taishaku Ten in Shibamata.






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- - - - - a more modern version on the ema votive tablet
柴又 . 題経寺、帝釈天板本尊出現を描かれた絵馬


- - - - - and the scroll in the temple

source : www.daisonkai.com

- quote
Shibamata Taishakuten
- - - Establishment
This temple, formally called Kyoei-zan Daikyoji, was founded during the Kan-ei Period(1629) under the auspices of the nineteenth head priest of Hokekyoji Temple in Shimofusa Nakayama, Reverend Zen-nai-in Nitchu.
The second head priest of Daikyoji, Rev. Daikyo-in Nichi-ei, is credited for its actual logistical establishment.

The Appearance of the Ita-honzon (Wooden Main Diety)

For many years, this temple housed a figure of Taishakuten (Indira), until it disappeared for a period during the middle ages (between the later Heian and Muromachi Period (1175-1573)).
The lost main deity was miraculously found when the ninth head priest, Kotei-in Nikkyo, disturbed by the severely dilapidated condition of the main prayer hall, decided to renovate.
Coincidentally, this main deity was discovered in the attic of the main hall on a Koshin Day in the spring of the eighth year of the An-ei Period(1779).
A brief account by Rev. Nikkyo himself claims, "The main figure that was discovered in the attic measured two shaku and five sun in length, one shaku and five sun in width, and five fun in thickness.
Contrary to its dimensions, it is very heavy and very hard owing to the heavy layer of accumulated soot.
We were not able to make out what it beheld until we purified it with water.
Whereupon, we found that one side was a wooden print block of the odaimoku carved by St. Nichiren himself in hopes that it would serve to prevent disease.
On the other side is a woodblock print of Taishakuten.
This, in fact, was the talked about main figure of worship.

The Main Figure of Worship
On one side of the main figure is caved the "Hail the Wonderful Lotus Sutra", and on each side is carved a quotation from the chapter on the Medicine-King from the Lotus Sutra which reads,
"This sutra is the medicine for all the ill people in the world.
Should there be one who is sick and he or she should listen to this sutra, then they will be instantly cured and be free from the fetters of aging and death."
And on the other side of the main figure
is carved the figure of Taishakuten in a pose of anger with the right hand wielding a sword and the left palm open.
This figure depicts the conquering of evil.
That is, those who believe and follow the Buddha's teaching will certainly be protected by Taishakuten whenever such a person becomes ill or is subsumed in fire or any other kind of disaster.
Taishakuten will remove and destroy such evil.

Mysterious Merits
It was during the third year of the Tenmei Period(1781-1789) after the Anei Period(1772-1781) concluded in its ninth year that saw the spread of epidemics and starvation.
Rev. Nikyo felt that it was time to save those who have experienced disasters.
Thus, he carried the figure of Taishakuten by himself and visited the victims in various part of Edo and Shimofusa, among others.
He passed out ichi-ryu go-fu, in which he staunchly believed, and encouraged the people to pray to the main figure which is said to have brought about many mysterious merits.

The Eve of Koshin Day
In this manner, faith in Taishakuten initially centralized in Edo, expanded, especially when it began to be associated with the practice of Koshin-machi, fueling popularity in the temple's "Yoi-goshin" (Eve of Koshin Day) festival during the latter Edo period(1603-1867).
A trend magazine published during the early Meiji Period(1868-1904) states:
"Among those associated with the Koshin faith, there is Taishakuten located in Shibamata of South Katsushika Ward.
Taishakuten is a Brahmin God of India.
Later, Taishakuten would be known as a protector of Buddhist teachings;
though, it had little connection with the practice of "Koshin-machi", imported from China.
Instead, the name "Koshin" in Daikyoji's case simply refers to the rediscovery on Koshin Day of its once-lost figure of worship.

Ever since its discovery, Koshin Day has been celebrated by people from Tokyo to Ko-ume Hikifune, making pilgrimages in small groups, walking in the dark, through rice paddies and gardens, always greeting friends and strangers alike along the way, saying, 'Good morning, good morning'.
This kind of scene reminds one of days past when everything was simple." For as far as one could see, lines of people with lit torches could be seem walking through towns such as Ko-ume, Hikifune, Yotsugi, and Tateishi, and then crossing the river at Magarikane (Takasago) and coming to Shibamata.
And another row of shimmering torches passed through Senju and Niijuku, making the event quite a celebration.
Tea houses that offer among other things, Kusa-dango (rice cakes of yomogi grass), still exist.
People who make pilgrimages stay the night in the main hall of the temple, receive the day's first "o-kaicho" prayer in the morning, drink some holy water overflowing from the spring in the garden and then finally head for home.
- source : www.taishakuten.or.jp



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HAIKU


Kikenjoo -
looking up from my valley
the sky shimmers

Gabi Greve, 1998

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三伏の月の穢に鳴く荒鵜かな
sanpuku no tsuki no e ni naku ara-u kana

they screech at the moon
on the sanpuku day ...
wild cormorants

Iida Dakotsu 飯田蛇笏 (1885 - 1962)


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Related words

***** Heat shimmers, kageroo

***** Japanese Castles and Haiku

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kooshin shinkoo 庚申信仰 Koshin Shinko belief



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Kōshin shinkō
A day on which the 7th "stem" (kō) in the Chinese zodiacal system combines with the 9th "branch" (shin 'monkey') is known as kōshin, when believers spend an abstemious, all-night vigil for the sake of their longevity.
The custom goes back to the Chinese Taoist Ge Hong (283-343), who in Baopuzi ("He Who Holds to Simplicity") claimed that there are three worms (J. sanshi) in the human body, upper, middle, and lower, which on the night of kōshin attempt to escape while their hosts are asleep and to report the sins of such mortals to the Celestial God , thereby causing their lives to be shortened. It is to prevent the escape of the worms that the vigil, called shukōshin, is held.
The idea of sanshi appears to have come to Japan via Korea in the 8th century. In the 10th century, the custom was regularly observed in the Imperial Court, with the focus on the emperor, in the form of a banquet.
Around the 11th and 12th centuries, perhaps under the influence of the Way of Yin-Yang (Onmyōdo) , the Laozi shou-gengshen qiu- zhangsheng-jing ("The Laozi Shou-gengshen (shukōshin) Quest for Longevity Sutra") was composed, and in the latter half of the 15th century a Buddhist account was added, entitled: Kōshin-engi ("Kōshin Origins").
In it, the objects of worship are said to include Shōmen Kongō (Skt. yaksa, renowned for warding off disease) , Kannon, and Amida.
It is here that a Buddhistic kōshin cult originated; during the Edo Period, it spread to the general populace. Kōshin devotional groups continued to be formed, with kōshin halls and monuments being constructed in large numbers.

Kōshin monuments were constructed on the occasion of a third consecutive annual kōshin vigil (kōshin-machi, see below), held together with memorial services. When constructed atop a hillock (tsuka) or in the form of a stūpa, they are called kōshin-zuka.
Yamazaki Ansai, drawing on the association of shin with the monkey (saru), advocated a Shintoistic kōshin cult, in which the primary object of worship was Sarutahiko. Within the Shugendō tradition as well, a unique form of the kōshin cult was propagated, so that there were three varieties of the faith: Buddhist, Shintō, and Shugendō.
In the Edo Period, all-night vigils spread among the people; these came to be known as kōshin-machi. Kōshin pictures were hung, Shingon mantras or the Heart Sutra were chanted, and when these rituals had been observed, all-night conversations and feasting among the participants followed. Today, with the original significance of the vigil having been lost, the purpose of the custom has widely shifted to that of an ordinary banquet.
- source : Kokugakuin, Iwai Hiroshi 2006 -



. san-shi no mushi 三尸の虫 Sanshi - The Three Worms.
in Taoism and Chinese Mecicine


shu Kooshin 守庚申 Shukoshin, the Protector

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- Legends about Kooshin 庚申 Koshin   -

175 legends to explore
- source : yokai database -


. Shōmen Kongō 青面金剛 Shomen Kongo .

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Taishakuten (Indra)

Mächtiger indischer Kriegsgott; lebt auf dem Weltenberg in dem Kikenjoo-Schloß, im Zentrum der neun Gebirge und der acht Meere (kuzan hakkai). Von dort aus registriert er die guten und bösen Taten aller Menschen. Shoomen Kongoo Ten war sein Bote.
Im Kikenjoo-Schloß liegen vier Paradiesgärten (Taishaku Shien: Shuusha En, Zoorin En, Kirin En und Soaku En).
Seit der Edo-Zeit im Rahmen des Wegegottheiten-Glaubens (Kooshin) auch enge Ver~bindung mit dem Tempel Teikyooji in Shibamata, der heute noch das wichtigste Zentrum der Taishakuten- und Kooshin-Pilger~fahrten ist. (Der beliebte Altstadt-Typ "Tora-San" entspringt dieser Atmosphäre.)
Oft zusammen mit Bonten dargestellt, als Bewacher des Shakyamuni. Auch als Naturgottheit für Sonne und Regen zuständig.

Ikonografie:
Hohe Krone. Vier Köpfe.
Gewänder mit langen Ärmeln über einer chinesischen Rüstung. Wenn mit Bonten zusammen, trägt Taishaku eine Rüstung und Bonten keine. Auf dem Helm des Taishaku befindet sich ein rhombenförmiges Muster.
Im esoterischen Buddhismus auf einem weißen Elefanten mit drei Stoßzähnen reitend, ein Bein über den Rücken des Tieres hängend. Donnerkeil und Lotusblüte in der Hand.

.Buddhastatuen ... Who is Who   

Ein Wegweiser zur Ikonografie
von japanischen Buddhastatuen

Gabi Greve, 1994

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. WKD : New Year Ceremonies


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- #taishakuten #koshincult #帝釈天 -
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9 comments:

Gabi Greve said...

Museum for Tora-san director Yamada opens

The museum was built next to the Tora-san Museum within Katsushika Ward's culture center in Shibamata, the hometown of the bumbling hero of the long-running series, also called Tora-san.

The character was portrayed by the late Kiyoshi Atsumi.

Japan Times
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20121216b4.html

Gabi Greve - WKD said...

三伏の三途の川をバスで越す
sanpuku no Sanzu no Kawa o basu de kosu

I cross river Sanzu
to the hottest summer days
by bus

Izumi Yuuko 泉ゆう子 Izumi Yuko

MORE about Sanzu no Kawa

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

tokonoma 床の間 alcove for decorations, art nook

- part of the entry about
. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .
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Gabi Greve said...

- - - snip
I believe the subject matter refers to Kōshin (庚申). I agree with Tomoë Steineck’s initial idea that the monkey relates to Kōshin (庚申), although she noted her concern that there are only two monkeys (rather than usual three). It seems, nevertheless, the number of monkeys varies. (Fabian would know about Kōshin probably better than anyone, at least better than me.) Kōshin, the calendrical combination of kanoe-saru that occurs every sixty days, refers to the cult (庚申講) of diverting the troubles of sanshi (三尸). According to the Chinese-Daoist tradition, the sanshi are the three parasites, which escape the sleeping human body to report the host's misdeeds and sins to the heaven every night of Kōshin. To evade the chance of sanshi’s departure people stayed up all night, which became the vigil known as Kōshin-machi (庚申待). Therefore, the moon on the lacquer tray represents the night. The appearance of the monkey alludes to Kōshin’s “shin,” the zodiac monkey, which makes a further link between Kōshin and the mythological deity, Sarutahiko (猿田彦 “Prince Monkey Field”), red-faced terrestrial kami who welcomed celestial kami first to the earth. The monkey with a gohei thus, I believe, stands for Sarutahiko.

The other monkey may represent Sarutahiko’s mate, Ame-no Uzume, the deity of dawn whose comical dance let the Sun Goddess reveal herself out of hiding in the heavenly rock cave. Then, the moon may indicate a solar eclipse, in a mythological sense. This monkey sits on the pine tree, matsu, a homonymous pun on Kōshin-machi's machi (waiting).

The gray bird, I believe it to be an uguisu (bush warbler), on a plum branch makes another reference to waiting, as they signify the seasonal symbols of anticipating Spring.

Finally, the foreground may depict the island of Enoshima off the coast of Kamakura and Fujisawa cities. The Dragon palace-like structures seem to refer to Enoshima Shrine (consist of three shrines). According to their legend (Enoshima engi), Heavenly maiden (天女) pacified the troublemaking,ferocious Five-headed dragon (五頭龍). The maiden is the main deity of Enoshima Shrine, although she takes a form of a Buddhist icon, Benzai-ten after the amalgamating cults of the dragon princess and Banzai-ten. The main gate of Enoshima Shrine incidentally shapes after the typical dragon palace architecture. Enoshima is also famous for its rocky shoreline with caves, to which the craggy precipice on the lacquer tray seems to allude. One of the caves is dedicated to the Dragon King (龍神). According to the official website of Enoshima Shrine, in 1190 Hōjō Tokimasa visited the cave shrine and saw Benzai-ten (source: Taihei-ki).

A couple of Kōshin monuments_ (庚申塔) (one of them depicts 36 monkeys!) on the island suggests active Kōshin cult on Enoshima.

Without knowing its provenance, it is all conjecture, but might this tray be commissioned by a member (or members) of Enoshima Kōshin-kō (庚申講) to place offerings at the service of Kōshin-machi?

Respectfully,
Ikumi Kaminishi

.
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/pmjs/7FQwEI_dBy4
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Gabi Greve said...

Earthquake Legends and Koshin Sama
Tochigi 栃木県  ......................................

If during the New Year rituals for Koshin Sama at a private home an earthquake happens, the rituals must be stopped and started again on another day. During an earthquake, Koshin sama will run out of the house and thus there is no point in making offerings to him.
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http://heianperiodjapan.blogspot.jp/2016/04/earthquake-jishin-legends.html
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Gabi Greve said...

a legend from Hokkaido 北海道

Before a Tsunami reaches 松前 Matsumae, the figures of 仏神の姿 Buddhas and Shinto deities can be seen flying in the sky to give a warning.
- - - Kaishi Shinroo 海市蜃楼
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Tsunami legends
http://heianperiodjapan.blogspot.jp/2016/04/tsunami-legends.html
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Gabi Greve said...

光明山 Komyozan 真言院 Shingon-In 荘厳寺 Shogon-Ji
渋谷区本町2-44-3 / 2 Chome-44-3 Honmachi, Shibuya ward
. Gofunai 御府内八十八ヶ所霊場 88 Henro Temples in Edo Nr. 11
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with a Kooshintoo 庚申塔 Stone memorial of Koshin Deities
Day of the Monkey and the element metal.
In the temple compound, with a stone inscription of the dates 1677 and 1690.
Koshin memorials are rather seldom in Buddhist shrines. On the Shikoku Henro trail there is a 庚申堂 Koshin Hall at temple Nr. 78 郷照寺 Kosho-Ji.
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https://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.jp/2016/12/gofunai-temples-10-and-11.html
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Gabi Greve said...

Shimane 知夫郡 Chibu district 知夫村 Chibu village

Once a brave man was on his way to 伊勢神宮 Ise Shrine with a lot of money for offerings, but an Oni in the form of the 庚申 Koshin Deity took all his money away. But it was just a wicked person clad like Koshin. When the Deity heard the story, he hurried to give the money back to the brave man.
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Shimane 島根県の鬼伝説 Oni Demon Legends
https://kappapedia.blogspot.jp/2017/03/demon-legends-shimane.html
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Gabi Greve said...

Koshin legend from Niigata
Once during a typhoon, a ship was driven out to sea and eventually only one man of the crew, who believed in Koshin, was washed ashore at an unknown beach. He almost died of hunger but eventually was saved and came home to his family.
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https://heianperiodjapan.blogspot.jp/2015/08/typhoon-legends.html
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